Access to healthcare
Access to health services is ensured under the same conditions as for Romanian citizens.
Once you have been granted a form of protection in Romania it is important to register with the health insurance system and to pay the contribution to the health fund. This is the only way in which you can have free access to medical services.
1.1 How can I be insured in the healthcare system?
If you don’t have an income:
- You can be insured in the social health insurance system if you submit the form D212, „Declaraţia unică privind impozitul pe venit și contribuțiile sociale datorate de persoanele fizice” (“Single declaration regarding income tax and social contributions owed by natural persons”).
- The validity of the coverage for this category of persons is granted for a period of 12 months from the date of submission of the declaration.
- The basis for calculating the payment of the social health insurance contribution is equal to 6 gross minimum wages in force on the date of submission of the declaration. (Example of calculation of contribution due: basis of calculation = 6 x 3,000 lei (gross minimum wage value) = 18,000 lei x 10% (contribution rate) = 1,800 lei).
- Additional information is available on the ANAF website (www.anaf.ro). (Art. 180 alin. (3) din Codul fiscal aprobat prin Legea nr. 227/2015).
If you are employed:
- Your employer will pay your monthly contribution, along with other social security contributions (e.g. unemployment, retirement, etc.).
- 1.2 Can I be insured without contributing to the health fund?
- The persons who can be insured in the Romanian social health insurance system without contributing are:
- Children and young people up to 18 years old, students, young people up to 26 years old who are studying and do not have an income.
- Young people up to 26 years old who were part of the child protection system and are unemployed or do not receive social benefits.
- Spouse and parents who do not have an income and are supported by a person who is already insured in the Romanian health system.
- Persons with disabilities who do not have a salary, in certain conditions.
- Persons suffering from medical conditions that are included in the national health programs, until that medical condition is cured, if they do not have an income.
- Pregnant women and young mothers who do not have any revenue or have a revenue below national minimum wage (1.900 lei in October 2018).
What are my rights as an insured person?
As a person insured in the Romanian health insurance system you have the right to:
- Freely choose your provider of medical services, as well as the health insurance fund you will send your contribution to.
- Register with a General Physician (Family doctor) of your choice.
- Change the General Physician (Family doctor) you have chosen, but only after at least 6 months of registering with the first one.
Important to know!
- If you do not have health insurance you are entitled to receive a free package of medical services (e.g. medical and/or surgical emergencies, disease with an endemic-epidemic potential, monitoring the evolution of pregnancy and post-partum state, etc.)
- All hospitals are under an obligation to provide first aid and emergency medical assistance to any person requesting it, if that person is in a critical state.
- Qualified first aid and emergency medical assistance are to be given without any discrimination related to the following, but not limited to: income, gender, age, religion, citizenship or political allegiance, irrespective of whether the patient has a medical insurance or not.
- You can be insured by the national health system, but you can also have a private health insurance.
- For emergency situations (accidents, severe burns, etc.), you can call the national emergency number 112 (free of charge) and request an ambulance. The ambulance service is free of charge.
The authority in charge:
The County Health Insurance House from your county of residence.
Access to the social security system
What does the social security system include?
The Romanian social security system includes:
A. The social security system, which means: the public pension system, health insurance, unemployment benefit, accidents or work incapacity insurance, leave (annual leave, maternity leave, child care leave).
B. The social assistance system, which includes temporary and precise support measures such as monthly social support, home heating support (subsidy), child benefit/allowance or for family support.
A. The social security system:
- Unemployment benefit – This is a form of social protection all individuals can receive while they are looking for work, who have been employed or have earned income in Romania, or have the right to work in Romania.
- Insurance for labor accidents and labor-related medical conditions or temporary leave cause by the inability to work – If you have an individual labor contract with a Romanian employer you are entitled to medical leave and social health benefit payments for the prevention of medical conditions and for the recovery of labor capacity in case of labor-related accidents or occupational diseases.
- Retirement pay or pension – Is the most significant social benefit paid in the public system. There are 5 types of pension in Romania: age- related pension; disablement pension; successor’s pension; anticipated pension, and partial anticipated pension. You can benefit from pension if you have contributed to the public pension system in Romania.
- Maternity leave is a medical leave granted by the family General Physician (Family doctor), based on a letter from a specialist.
- Child care leave – Starts immediately after maternity leave ends. It can last up to 2 years or, in case of a child with disabilities, up to 3 years. The child care leave can be: one of the child’s biological parents; a person who adopts a child; a person who takes a child in foster care; the child’s legal guardian.
You can apply for child care leave if you meet all the conditions below simultaneously:
- You are a Romanian or foreign citizen, or a stateless person;
- You are legally residing in Romania;
- You live together with the child/children for whom you are claiming the leave and you are taking care of the child/children;
- You have earned income for 12 months previous to the birth of the child.
Authority in charge:
Requests for child care benefits are submitted at your city, village hall or at the County Agency for Payments and Social Inspection in the district where you reside.
B. The social assistance system
The social assistance system includes a different range of measures of financial or financial related help that you can benefit from as a foreigner residing in Romania.
The social assistance system offers the same types of benefits to both foreigners and Romanian citizens.
Social assistance measures include benefits for:
- The prevention and fight against poverty
- Supporting the child/children and the family
- Supporting persons with special needs
What are the main types of benefits?
a) Social benefit (minimum guaranteed income)
The minimum guaranteed income is a monthly financial benefit. The amount of this benefit is:
- 170 RON for one person.
- 305 RON for a 2-member family.
- 427 RON for a 3-member family.
- 529 RON for a 4-member family.
- 631 RON for a 5-member family.
43.60 RON for each additional person over 5, who is a member of the family.
The authority in charge:
Applications for social assistance benefit are to be submitted at the Mayor’s Office of the commune, town, city from your county of residence. The benefit will be paid by the County Agency for Payments and Social Inspection, after a social investigation will be conducted.
b) Heating subsidy
This is granted to families and single individuals with low income during the cold season (1 November – 31 March) to help them cover all or part of the heating costs. The heating subsidy is only granted for the place of residence.
The right to receive the heating subsidy:
- Is granted based on an Application form and on supporting documents that must be submitted before October 15th. Applications submitted during the cold season can also be accepted.
- Is is decided in November.
The authority in charge:
Mayor’s Offices/County Departments for Social Assistance and Child Protection from your county of residence.
c) Family support subsidy
This is granted to families with low incomes that are raising and caring for children up 18 years old to support them in raising, caring for and educating the children.
Who can benefit from family support subsidy?
- A family formed of a husband, wife and children in their care, living together.
- A family formed of one person and children in their care living together.
- The unmarried man and woman, with their children, living together.
Authority in charge:
- Mayor’s Office where you reside – for submitting your documentation. It is the Mayor’s decision to approve the family support subsidy after a social investigation.
- County Agency for Payments and Social Inspection – pays the monthly family support subsidy.
d) Child benefit (children’s allowance)
The children benefit represents a form of protection given by the state, nontaxable and cannot be forcedly executed by the state. The child benefit/allowance is granted to:
- All children who are Romanian citizens, foreign nationals, beneficiaries of a form of protection or stateless children who are residing in Romania.
- Children from 0 to 18 years old.
- Young persons over 18 years old, if they are enrolled in high-school or vocational school, until completion of their studies, if they do not repeat the year of study.
The amount of the child benefit is:
- 631 RON/month for children up to 2 years old, or up to 3 years old in the case of a child with a disability;
- 256 RON/month for children between the ages of 2 and 18 years, as well as for young people who have turned 18 years and are attending high school or professional education;
- 631 RON/month for children between the ages of 3 and 18 years, in the case of children with a disability.
The authority in charge:
Applications for child benefit/allowance are to be submitted at the Mayor’s Office of the commune, town, city from your county of residence or at the relevant County Agency for Payments and Social Inspection.
e) Other types of social assistance: foster subsidy, monthly food subsidy for persons with HIV/AIDS, monthly subsidy for persons with severe and serious disabilities, monthly companion fee for persons with visual impairment, monthly food subsidy for children with HIV/AIDS type of disability.